The "Peace Sign"has a very interesting story behind it. It was designed by an artist named Gerald Holtom, in 1958. He made it for a march in London, against Nuclear Weapon Research. So what is the symbol? It's two letters of the alphabet, in semaphore:
Holtom superimposed the two shapes and then tidied them up by putting them in a circle. The Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND) adapted Holtom's designs to make it into a lapel badge.